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Either team can have any number of players, but Reisswitz recommended 4 to 6 players each and that they be equal in size.
Only the umpire needs to be fully familiar with the rules, as he manipulates the pieces on the map and computes the outcomes of combat, whereas the players describe what they want their troops to do as if they were issuing orders to real troops in the field.
The map represents the battlefield. Troops on the battlefield are represented on the map by little rectangular pieces.
In Reisswitz's time, these piece were made of lead, but modern reconstructions typically use plastic.
Each piece is painted with markings that denoted what kind of unit it represented cavalry, infantry, etc.
The dimensions of each piece matched the dimensions of the actual troop formation it represented, to the same scale as the map.
Thus, each piece occupied an area on the map proportional to the space the actual troop formation would occupy in the field.
The umpire establishes the scenario of the game. He decides what the tactical objectives of the respective teams are, what troops they are provided with and how those troops are initially deployed on the battlefield.
The umpire will then assign each team the appropriate troop pieces for their units. If there are multiple players in a team, the teammates will divide control of their troops and establish a hierarchy of command in a way that should resemble Prussian military doctrine, subject to the umpire's approval.
Players do not speak to each other. Instead, they communicate with their teammates and the umpire through written messages.
This is so that the enemy team cannot hear their plans. This is also so that the umpire can delay or block messages if he feels the circumstances on the battlefield warrant it.
In the early 19th century, officers in the field communicated over long distances through messengers there was no radio in those days. Messengers needed time to reach the recipient, and could be delayed or intercepted by the enemy.
The umpire can simulate this problem by holding on to a player's message for a round or two before giving it to the recipient, never giving it, or even give it to the enemy.
Likewise, the players command their imaginary troops through written orders, which they submit to the umpire. The players are not allowed to manipulate the pieces on the map themselves — that is for the umpire to do.
The umpire will move the pieces across the map according to how he judges the imaginary troops would interpret and execute the players' orders.
The umpire places pieces on the map only for troops which he judges are visible to both sides. If a unit disappears from the enemy army's line of sight, the umpire will remove the piece from the map and keep it aside.
Naturally, this means the participants must keep a mental track of the positions of troops whose pieces are not on the map.
The players themselves may be represented on the battlefield with pieces that represent officers and their bodyguards.
The positions of the officers on the battlefield affects how the players can communicate with each other and the troops. Officers can be slain in battle like any other soldier, and if that happens the player ceases to participate in the game.
The course of the game is divided into rounds. A round represents two minutes of time. Thus, in a round the troops can perform as many actions as they realistically could in two minutes of time, and Reisswitz's manual provides some guidelines.
There is, for instance, a table which lists movement rates for the various troop types under different conditions, e.
The umpire uses dice to determine how much damage that attacking units inflict upon the enemy. The dice designed by Reisswitz are of unique design, with each face displaying a multitude of numbers and symbols that denoted different damage scores, measured in points, for different situations.
There are five dice:. Each unit has a point value which represents how many points of damage the unit in question can absorb before "dying".
In modern gaming parlance, this "point value" is analogous to " hitpoints ". The number of hitpoints a unit has is determined by the type of unit, the number of men in it, and their formation.
For instance, a cavalry squadron with 90 riders has 60 hitpoints, and a line infantry half-battalion with men has 90 hitpoints. Individual cavalry riders are "tougher" than infantrymen 1.
In most cases, a piece is simply removed from the map when it has lost all its hitpoints. An exception to this is line infantry. Line infantry had a special function in early 19th century warfare.
On the battlefield, infantry stood close together in long lines facing the enemy. A key tactical purpose of a line of infantry was to obstruct the advance of enemy troops.
When the line suffered casualties, this resulted in the formation of openings through which enemy troops could slip through. If the defender didn't have reserve infantrymen with which to plug the openings, this was a disaster, as then the enemy could move through the openings to isolate and flank his troops.
To represent this phenomenon on the game map, the game provides "exchange pieces" for infantry half-battalion pieces. The exchange pieces are commensurately smaller in length.
So if a half-battalion piece in a line of such pieces is replaced with an exchange piece, this will create a gap in the line.
Furthermore, a half-battalion piece is removed from the map when it loses half of its hitpoints, because a half-battalion that had lost half of its men was considered ineffective in combat and typically the men just fled the battlefield.
To track hitpoint loss, Reiswtiz's original manual provided sheet of paper called the "losses table". The losses table is divided into columns for line infantry, tirailleurs, jagers, cavalry, and artillery.
Each column has a series of numbered dots. At the start of the game, the umpire shall stick one pin for each piece on the map in the first dot of the appropriate column.
For instance, if the Red Army begins with three infantry pieces and two cavalry pieces, the umpire will stick three pins in the first dot in the infantry column and two pins in the first dot in the cavalry column.
Generally, the dot a pin is stuck in represents how many damage points the corresponding unit has accumulated. When a unit takes damage, the umpire will move the corresponding pin down its column to the appropriate dot.
If a pin reaches the bottom of the column, then the corresponding piece is removed from the map, or in the case of line infantry, replaced with an exchange piece.
For instance: if a cavalry squadron suffers 10 points of damage, the umpire will move the corresponding pin ten dots down the cavalry column.
If the pin reaches the 60th dot in the column, that's as much damage as a cavalry squadron can take, and the umpire will then remove the corresponding piece from the map.
Tschischwitz's version of Kriegsspiel was very much like Reisswitz's version, but it incorporated new advances in technologies and tactics. Deswegen lässt sich streng betrachtet alles als Actionspiel bezeichnen.
Allerdings findest du auch einige Kriegsspiele, bei denen weder geballert noch kommandiert wird. Stattdessen setzt du dich beispielsweise im historischen Setting mit Keule und Schwert zur Wehr und haust deinen Gegnern ordentlich auf die Pixelrübe.
Alternativ kannst du in Crush the Castle mittelalterliche Burgen mit einem Katapult auseinandernehmen oder dir bei Super-Mechroboter einen eigenen futuristischen Kampfroboter zusammenbauen und andere Mechs zu Schrotthaufen verarbeiten.
Ganz egal, welches War Games-Genre dir am besten gefällt, ob du lieber auf realistischen beziehungsweise historischen Schlachtfelder aufräumst, Fantasy-Welten mit Fabelwesen, Magie und Schwertern oder Science-Fiction-Settings bevorzugst: Bei uns findest du sicher das richtige Kriegsspiel, mit dem du dir am Computer actionreich die Zeit mit Spielen vertreiben kannst.
Worauf wartest du also noch? Beweise dir und der ganzen Welt, dass in dir ein cleverer Stratege, Actionheld und virtueller Kriegsveteran steckt.
Für dich. Each opponent knows the exact position of just their own pieces, and does not know where the opponent's pieces are but can keep track of how many there are.
Only the umpire knows the position of the game. The game proceeds in the following way:. Kriegspiel is sometimes used in chess problems.
In these, usual variations introduced by different black moves are replaced by variations introduced by different announcements.
An example of a Kriegspiel problem is shown at the right. White must checkmate Black in 8 moves, no matter where the black bishop initially is it is somewhere on dark squares and no matter what Black plays.
In a real Kriegspiel game, Black would not see White's moves, but for a problem in which White is to force a win, one must assume the worst-case scenario in which Black guesses correctly on each move.
For example, 1. Nf2 Bxf2 2. Kxf2 or Rxf2 is stalemate as well. So, White should not move either the knight or the bishop, because either might capture the black bishop by accident.
For the same reason, the white rook should move only to light squares — but only half of the light squares are reachable without visiting a dark square along the way.
Additionally, White should avoid placing his pieces on the a7—g1 diagonal prematurely because the invisible black bishop could be guarding that diagonal and capture the white pieces upon entering it, leading to a draw.
The same applies to the e1—h4 diagonal. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chess variant. Not to be confused with Kriegsspiel.